For an extensive list of examples and explanations of proper citations see the Purdue: Online Writing Lab.

For your papers at Erikson, the types of citations you will use the most are APA style in-text, indirect and direct citations:

 

Indirect citations – paraphrasing or summarizing someone else’s idea

*You will use this type of citation most often in your papers.

  • The information you provide is someone else’s idea, summarized or retold in your own words. For this type of citation you do not need quotation marks, simply a citation at the end of the idea or ideas you have summarized using this format: (Author, date).
  • Please note the parenthesis, commas and periods in the examples are all in the order they should appear in the citation. Also, please note that you do not need to include the page numbers with indirect citations.
  • If your paraphrase or summary is several sentences long, cite at the end of the last sentence using the format below. Do not cite at the end of each individual sentence as this is unnecessary and makes your paper difficult to read.

 

One author:

(Eliot, 1999)

Two authors:

(Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000)

Three to five authors:

(DeHart, Sroufe & Cooper, 2004)

See more examples here.

 

Direct citations – quoting someone else’s idea

  • The information you are quoting should be in quotation marks, followed by the proper citation using this format:

(Author, date, page #).

  • Please note the parenthesis, commas and periods in the examples are all in the order they should appear in the citation.
  • Use direct quotes sparingly in your papers. However, when you do use a direct quote, cite it as shown below.

 

One author:

“… ,…” (Eliot, 1999, p. 67)

OR

Eliot (1999) stated, “… , …” (p. 67).

Two authors:

“… , …” (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000, p. 55)

OR

Shonkoff & Phillips (2000) stated, “… , …” (p. 55).

Three to five authors:

“… , …” (DeHart, Sroufe & Cooper, 2004, p.45)

OR

DeHart, Sroufe & Cooper (2004) stated, “… , …” (p.45).

Examples for how to cite 6 or more authors given here.